10.8 C

How To Scan & Fix Hard Drives With CHKDSK In Windows 10

Popular Posts

CHKDSK, which is pronounced “Check Disk”, is an extremely useful tool to monitor the health of your disk drives. This tool performs a multipass scan on a drive to ensure that it is sound and functional. CHKDSK is a great tool to speed Windows 10. We recommend that you use it every few months to maintain your drives’ health.

This article will explain what CHKDSK means, how it works and how to use it to fix your Windows 10 hard drive.

How CHKDSK works

CHKDSK begins by scanning the disk drive’s file system and analysing the integrity and file system metadata.

CHKDSK fixes logical file system problems by restoring the data on the disk. Logical errors in the file system are caused by corrupted entries in the master file table (MFT) of the drive. This table tells the drive which files are connected to each other in the murky labyrinths that are the hardware.

CHKDSK can also fix misaligned timestamps, file size data and security flags. CHKDSK then can run a scan of the entire drive and access every sector to test it. The logical sectors are areas on the hard drive that contain a defined amount of data.

Soft errors can occur when data is written to the magnetic medium incorrectly. Hard errors are situations where the drive has a physical defect within a designated sector. CHKDSK can fix soft errors by rewriting the data or repairing hard errors by marking the affected area as ‘out-of-bounds’ for future use.

The program has been continuously updated with new storage hardware and continues to work properly to repair and analyze hard drives of all types. Today, the same process can be used to analyze a SSD with 15 terabytes.

CHKDSK running on Windows 10

There are many ways to invoke CHKDSK from Windows 10, but the most popular and common place to do so is the Windows PowerShell. This utility is intended as a replacement for Windows Command Prompt.

Because CHKDSK communicates directly with drive hardware, it needs special operating system permission called administrative privileges. This means that CHKDSK can run as if it were the computer’s account.

  1. Right-click on the Start Menu to select Windows PowerShell.
  2. Next, a User Account Control window (UAC) will appear. It will ask you permission to launch Windows Command Processor on your computer and allow it to make changes. Select Yes.
  3. To dismount the drive and scan for errors, type chkdsk: /x/r without quotes. To scan the drive online, type ” chkdsk/scan
  4. If the above command is not working because your drive is being used by another process, it means that you are trying to scan the primary drive (boot drive) when the OS is using it. To perform the scan, you can either enter recovery mode or create Windows Recovery Tool .

Invoking CHKDSK will scan your disk and display information about the status. However, it won’t fix any errors.

To make CHKDSK work in a mode that will actually solve the problems it encounters, you must add multiple parameters. Parameters are commands that are added to the end the program name with the “/” character before each parameter in Windows PowerShell programs. To get CHKDSK’s full scan and repair pass, type ” ” in this example.

The “/r” parameter does the same things as “/f”. It fixes any errors on the drive and tells CHKDSK how to locate bad sectors and retrieve any readable information. The “/x” parameter instructs CHKDSK how to remove the drive (take it off the operating system) before the process starts.

Additional CHKDSK Parameters

CHKDSK offers a wide range of options parameters to alter the behavior of the program.

  • – You can specify a volume name or drive letter using the Volume parameter. The and > characters are not required.
  • [ ] Only drives that use the FAT32 or FAT32 organizational model can have their Path and FileName parameters. You can use Path and FileName to specify the name and location of a file, or set of files, that you would like CHKDSK check for fragmentation. To specify multiple files, you can use the wildcard characters * and? To specify multiple files, you can use the wildcard characters * and?
  • /f – This parameter tells CHKDSK that it should actually correct errors on the disk. The disk must be locked. CHKSDK will not lock the drive. A message will appear asking you if the drive should be checked the next time you start the computer.
  • /v – The /v parameter shows the name of every file in each directory, as the disk is being checked.
  • /r – This parameter finds bad sectors and retrieves readable information. The disk must be locked. /r contains the functionality of the /f function, along with additional analysis of physical disk problems.
  • /x – If necessary, the /x parameter causes the volume to dismount before it can mount. All handles on the drive that are not closed are null. /x also contains the functionality of /f.
  • /i – Only a drive formatted using the NTFS model can use the /i parameter. This reduces the time it takes to run CHKDSK. It performs a more thorough check of index entries.
  • /c – This parameter is also only available on an NTFS drive. This instructs CHKDSK to not check folder structures for cycles, which decreases the time it takes to run CHKDSK.
  • /l[: ] – Only NTFS can use the /i parameter. This changes the size of the log file to match the type. If the size parameter is not specified, /l will display the current size.
  • /b – This parameter can only be used with NTFS. This clears the volume of bad clusters and rescans any allocated or free clusters. /b also includes functionality from /r. This parameter is used to image a volume onto a new hard drive.
  • /? /???? – The parameter /???? displays a help file containing this list of parameters. The /? parameter displays a helpfile containing the list of parameters and instructions for using CHKDSK.

The Command Prompt should contain the complete command.

chkdsk [Drive:] [parameters]


chkdsk C: /x /r

Use CHKDSK for a Boot Drive

The boot drive is the part of your hard disk that the computer boots up from. Boot partitions can be very special and require special handling in order for CHKDSK (Children’s Help Desk) to work with them.

CHKDSK must be able lock any boot drive it scans. This means that it can’t examine the boot drive of a computer that is currently in use. The CHKDSK process will start as soon as you enter the command.

However, if the target drive is a Boot disk, the system will ask if you would like to run this command before the next boot. Reboot the computer and type “yes” or “y”. The command will start before the operating system loads. This will allow it to have full access to the disk.

It can take time to execute a CHKDSK command, especially if it is performed on large drives. It will provide a summary of the results, including total disk space and byte allocation. Also, it will highlight any errors and correct them.

CHKDSK in Previous Windows Editions

Windows 7/8/XP users can use the CHKDSK command to start a scan of their hard drives.

  1. For older Windows versions, you can access the Command Prompt using Start > Run or by typing ” cmd
  2. Right-click the Command Prompt result and choose Run As Administrator to give the program the privileges necessary to successfully execute CHKDSK.

A warning: If you run CHKDSK on an older drive, your hard drive space may be significantly reduced. This is because of a failing HD. One of the most important functions that CHKDSK performs on your drive is to block or identify bad sectors.

While a few bad sectors may not be noticed by the user on an older drive, if it is in serious condition or fails, there could be many bad sectors. These bad sectors can, when blocked by CHKDSK and mapped, “steal” large portions of your hard drive.

There are other ways to launch CHKDSK

There are many other options to invoke CHKDSK on your computer if you don’t like the command prompt. The Windows Explorer is perhaps the most convenient.

  1. Open File Explorer. Right-click on the drive that you wish to inspect and choose Properties.
  2. Next, click on Tools and then Check. This will launch CHKDSK using standard parameters.

Most Frequently Asked Questions

Is chkdsk possible on an external drive?

Yes, the chkdsk command can be used on an external drive. You just need to indicate the drive in the command that you are executing.

Here’s an example.

  1. As shown, open Windows Power Shell and Command Prompt to become an administrator.
  2. Type in ” Chkdsk D: /f” and hit .

In this case, the external drive is named D drive. The /f command scans disks and attempts repair.

How can you see the output logs from the chkdsk scanner?

  1. To open the Run program type Windows key +R, then enter eventvwr and hit Enter.
  2. Click on Windows Logs.
  3. Next, click Application.
  4. Scroll down through the logs to find Wininit under the Source tab. You want the one with chkdsk information under the General Tab.

How can you scan a drive using CHKDSK while it’s still in use?

Sometimes, scanning a drive using chkdsk may cause a message to appear that the drive is still being used. This is a sign that the drive has been mounted and you need to either unmount it or use Windows Recovery Tools to boot it.

Last Thoughts

CHKDSK can scan and fix hard drives on Windows 10 computers. You can optimize your computer’s performance by using this useful function.

What are your tips for fixing errors in Windows 10 drives? Please leave your comments below.

- Advertisement -spot_img

More articles


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

- Advertisement -spot_img

Recent Posts